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Worship, prayers and Bible lectionary resources

All Saints Year B, White


Introduction

All Saints is a yearly celebration in which we are encouraged to remember that we are literally 'all saints!'

We tend to think of people like Mother Theresa as saints. They are special because their lives reflect the very best of human behaviour. As we think of them and the way that they lived we are encouraged to be more like them. We think of them as being holy, in the sense of living special godly lives, separated from the grubbiness of usual daily living.

This is all well and good but we need to also remember that you and I are saints as well. We might not live such remarkable lives as Mother Theresa, but we are still saints. This is because we are already holy by virtue of being God's children. We do not have to work hard trying to become God's children, we already are! In the same way that a child might work hard to please their parents, so we will want our lives to measure up, but we are already God's, we are already saints because we call Him father.

At this time of year we admire saints, we use them as role models to encourage ourselves that we can do better. But we do not lose sight of our special kinship to God.

 

Opening Sentence

Colossians 1:12
Give thanks to the Father, who has qualified you to share in the inheritance of the saints in the kingdom of light.
 

Collect Prayer for the Day — Before we read we pray

Almighty God, you have knit together your elect in one communion and fellowship in the mystical body of your Son Christ our Lord: grant us grace so to follow your blessed saints in all virtuous and godly living that we may come to those inexpressible joys that you have prepared for those who truly love you; through Jesus Christ your Son our Lord, who is alive and reigns with you, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.

God of holiness, your glory is proclaimed in every age: as we rejoice in the faith of your saints, inspire us to follow their example with boldness and joy; through Jesus Christ our Lord.

 

First Bible Reading

Isaiah 25: 6-9
On this mountain the LORD Almighty will prepare a feast of rich food for all peoples, a banquet of aged wine the best of meats and the finest of wines. On this mountain he will destroy the shroud that enfolds all peoples, the sheet that covers all nations; he will swallow up death forever. The Sovereign LORD will wipe away the tears from all faces; he will remove the disgrace of his people
from all the earth. The LORD has spoken. In that day they will say, "Surely this is our God; we trusted in him, and he saved us. This is the LORD, we trusted in him; let us rejoice and be glad in his salvation."

Second Reading

Rev 21: 1-6a
Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea. I saw the Holy City, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride beautifully dressed for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, "Now the dwelling of God is with men, and he will live with them. They will be his people, and God himself will be with them and be their God. He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away." He who was seated on the throne said, "I am making everything new!" Then he said, "Write this down, for these words are trustworthy and true." He said to me: "It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. To him who is thirsty I will give to drink without cost from the spring of the water of life.

Gospel Reading

John 11: 32-44
 When Mary reached the place where Jesus was and saw him, she fell at his feet and said, "Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died." When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who had come along with her also weeping, he was deeply moved in spirit and troubled. "Where have you laid him?" he asked. "Come and see, Lord," they replied. Jesus wept. Then the Jews said, "See how he loved him!" But some of them said, "Could not he who opened the eyes of the blind man have kept this man from dying? "Jesus, once more deeply moved, came to the tomb. It was a cave with a stone laid across the entrance. "Take away the stone," he said.   "But, Lord," said Martha, the sister of the dead man, "by this time there is a bad odour, for he has been there four days." Then Jesus said, "Did I not tell you that if you believed, you would see the glory of God?" So they took away the stone. Then Jesus looked up and said, "Father, I thank you that you have heard me. I knew that you always hear me, but I said this for the benefit of the people standing here, that they may believe that you sent me." When he had said this, Jesus called in a loud voice, "Lazarus, come out!" The dead man came out, his hands and feet wrapped with strips of linen, and a cloth around his face.   Jesus said to them, "Take off the grave clothes and let him go."


Post Communion Sentence

God, the source of all holiness and giver of all good things: may we who have shared at this table as strangers and pilgrims here on earth be welcomed with all your saints to heavenly feast on the day of your kingdom, through Jesus Christ our Lord.  (All Saints) 


Commentary

Who is in the Communion of Saints?
As early as the second century, Christians gathered for worship at the tombs of the martyrs, celebrating the power of God’s grace in the lives of these faithful men and women. From this came the early understanding that the phrase ‘the Communion of Saints’ referred to the enduring bond between the faithful on earth and the faithful who had gone before, especially those whose witness was crowned with martyrdom. While all Christians are properly called saints, the word “saint” soon became a title of honour referring to exemplary lives among the faithful, and most notably the lives of martyrs. The celebration of saints as we know it (i.e. those who served God but died in the faith rather than for the faith) comes later, about the 7th century. Egbert of York brought the festival to England and by the 9th century it had become a major feast in the church calendar in England. Today, we continue to celebrate a Communion of Saints that embraces all Christians, past present and future; including those whose lives are not necessarily like us, or whose lives are not notably marked by saintliness! ‘We live among saints but saints are not perfect. Their weaknesses and strengths are woven into our own’. But together we are part of that great community God calls His saints.

The inextricable link between holiness and the Communion of Saints
All Saints' Day is also known as All Hallows' Day, hallow meaning to make holy, consecrate and honour. The theme of God’s holiness permeates the entire Bible and as human beings we are invited to participate in the holiness of God through His Son, Jesus Christ. To be holy is to participate in the holiness of Jesus who is “the way, the truth, and the life”. The Communion of Saints, the communio sanctorum, implies, first of all, communion, communion with Christ and through Him and the power of the Holy Spirit, communion and a relationship with our God, who is all holy.

Our own holiness starts then with a relationship with God through Jesus Christ, the mediator of all holiness. Our holiness also entails being in communion, part of our journey with one another and all the saints who have gone before us. Holiness therefore implies relationships; relationships which sometimes make it feel like it’s very difficult to be holy! But however challenging some of our relationships seem, it’s impossible to be in communion alone. God’s own holiness is part of being in communion, a communion of Father, Son, and Spirit dwelling together in love. To enter into a relationship with God is to enter into a relationship with all who share in that same fellowship of God; past, present and future. Jut as we are called into a relationship with God, we are called into a relationship with each other, the Communion of Saints, the Priesthood of all believers.

Our relationship and fellowship with Christ and with one another will never be complete in this life, but is emphasised and strengthened as we together draw closer to him and to one another, and will be perfected in eternity. Together we are in union and communion with all the faithful saints, and as Christians we are called to live out that unity and communion, whatever our denomination or race or background. One of the statements from the Second Vatican council expressed this unity and communion as ‘…that among all the nations of earth there is but one People of God, which takes its citizens from every race, making them citizens of a kingdom which is of a heavenly and not an earthly nature. For all the faithful scattered throughout the world are in communion with each other in the Holy Spirit.’ We live in faith with all those who have gone before us, we, like they are on a journey of faith, a pilgrimage which leads to God. Jesus takes us as we are, with all our diverse backgrounds, perspectives and relationships, takes us even though we often feel far from holy, and, invites us to be holy, as He is holy, and to join with Him in the communion of saints.

Our Holy Communion links our holiness, our sainthood, to our daily experience. We start the Eucharist with contrite hearts, confess our sins, receive God’s forgiveness and pray the Kyrie Eleison. We listen to the words of scripture from the bible and through the sermon. We confess our faith and give thanks to God in prayers and intercessions. We receive from God the body and blood of Jesus and together are sent out with the task of renewing the earth. Communion is not the end but the beginning of mission, mission as a Community of Saints, made whole and made holy through God and His gifts. Sam Cappleman

Meditation

Explaining Halloween, All Saints and All Souls


Halloween
The last day of October marks the beginning in the church of a period known as Hallowtide 'All Saintstide' when Christian remember those who have died. All-Hallows Eve, or Halloween, October 31 has Celtic origins being originally the feast of Sanhain/Samhain,(pronounced 'sow'inn) the last night of the Celtic year, when all kinds of spirits were thought to be active. The Celts believed that this was a time when the boundary between the spirit world and the earthly world is at its thinnest and when spirits are most likely to be seen on earth. It was a night of danger signifying the change from Autumn to Winter, it was a night when feasts were held for the dead and animals killed for the Winter. On this night fires were lit in the belief that light had power over darkness, hence pumpkin lanterns to frighten away witches and ghosts. When the Romans invaded Britain they included elements of their harvest celebrations in which they honoured the goddess of the fruits of trees, Pomona. Children still play games with apples at this time of year.

So when did Sanhain become Halloween? By the 9th century Christianity had spread into Celtic lands and the celebration became known as the Eve of All Hallows and eventually Halloween.

All Saints Day, (All Hallows) November 1
The word Hallow means 'Holy', (blessed, consecrated or set apart in a special way) and so 'All-Hallows' or 'All Saints' refers to the Saints—the Holy Ones. Those who died for their faith or who lived extraordinary lives. This day dates back to the 5th century Antioch in Syria when the church dedicated a day to the memory of all those who had been killed for their faith. Until then the church had remembered martyrs on special days of the year, but there became more martyrs than days in the year, and there were some whose names were not known. In Rome Boniface IV (608-615) had relics of martyrs moved from the catacombs to the Pantheon. In 835 the 1st of November was given the title 'All Saints.'

St. Martin of Tours is represented by a cloak which he cut in half to give to a shivering beggar
Catherine of Alexandria is shown with a spiked wheel
St. Sebastian usually holds an arrow—as a reminder of the terrible methods of their respective martyrdoms.
The saints are our ancestors on earth and precede us in heaven. Many Christians experience a strong sense that the saints are still with us, and that they watch over us and pray to God for us. The prayer from Methodist Worship at the bottom of this page expresses the idea of knowing their fellowship with us. Although dead, they are members of Christ's Church and we use this day to give thanks for the lives of all the saints as they are examples to us. Saints are created as signs of hope, that the gospel really can change lives. Somebody is not made a saint at canonisation, it is rather an acknowledgement that somebody was a saint and is therefore in heaven and not neglectful of the needs of the world, through the communion of saints.



All Souls Day, November 2
In the New Testament, 'saint' is often used to describe all those who are followers of Christ, the people called to holiness in him. Not just those who were extra-specially good. So does this apply to Christians now? Are all saints? The answer must be Yes! So on this day we pray not just for those who have been specially recognised as Saints, but for all of our loved ones. In 1048 Odilo, the Abbot of the Benedictine Monastery at Cluny near Paris instructed his monks to use this day as a day of remembrance and prayer for all the departed, this day was made official in the 14C.

In the Christian Church we remember the Church not just as those who are living but also those who have died, they are just as much the church as we are and the Christian Church has two names for this, those who are living are called the church militant, and those have died are called the church triumphant.

This time of year is an important time to cherish the memory of those who have died and who have gone before us. As we celebrate their memory we can know and be glad that they share with us in Christ's eternal kingdom. People find the whole idea of death difficult and to have a special day to remember those who have died is not an easy thing for some people. At this time in the year of the church we can really think and speak about those who have died and not in hushed tones. We can remember and feel our loss. We celebrate the lives of those whom we have known and love and we pray for their peace.

Holy God you have called witnesses from every nation and revealed your glory in their lives. Grant us the same faith and love that, following their example, we may be sustained by their fellowship and rejoice in their triumph; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. (Methodist Worship)
 

Hymns and Psalms

  1. Come let us join our cheerful songs, 93

  2. O happy day, 499

  3. For all the saints, 148

  4. I will sing the wondrous story, 315

 

Prayers for Sunday and the week ahead

 

For all the saints who went before us,
Who have spoken to our hearts and touched us with your fire,
We praise you, O God

For all the saints who live beside us,
Whose weaknesses and strengths are woven into our own,
We praise you, O God

Who challenge us to change the world with them,
We praise you, O God
Janet Morley
(in Bread of Tomorrow, Christian Aid and SPCK, 192, 2004)

O Lord, in every age you reveal yourself to the childlike and lowly of heart, and from every race you write names in your book of life, give us the simplicity and faith of your saints, that loving you above all things, we may be what you would have us be, and to do what you would have us do. So may we be numbered with your saints in glory everlasting. Amen.

Father God, you have brought us near to the spirits of those who have been made perfect, and to an innumerable company of angels; grant us during our earthly pilgrimage to abide in their fellowship, and in the heavenly country to become partakers of their joy. Amen

Lord God, we thank you for calling us into the company of those who trust in Christ and seek to obey His will. May your Spirit guide and strengthen us in mission and service to your world; for we are strangers no longer but pilgrims together on the way to your Kingdom. Amen Prayer of the Inter Church Process (The Swanwick Declaration)

May almighty God grant you to be numbered with the saints in glory everlasting; and the blessing of God Almighty, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, be among you and remain with you always. Amen
 
 

Additional Material

The last day of October marks the beginning in the church of a period known as Hallowtide 'All Saintstide' when Christian remember those who have died.

All-Hallows Eve, or Halloween, October 31
Halloween has Celtic origins being originally the feast of Sanhain, the last night of the Celtic year, when all kinds of spirits were thought to be active. It was a night of danger signifying the change from Autumn to Winter, it was a night when feasts were held for the dead and animals killed for the Winter. On this night fires were lit in the belief that light had power over darkness, hence pumpkin lanterns to frighten away witches and ghosts. The ashes of fires were sprinkled on the land to frighten the evil spirits away. In England bonfires are now lit on Guy Fawkes Night, but other countries still stick to Halloween. On this day people play with apples, apple bobbing was done in the Celtic belief that the branches of the apple tree helped dead souls to pass into their heaven. They dress up as witches and evil spirits and ghosts. We make pumpkins and put candles inside and the idea is that the light and scary face will frighten evil spirits away. More recently we have seen the spreading of children dressed up behaving badly doing trick or treat, the practice seemingly fitting in with the idea of a time of devilment.

Of course many people are unsure about whether children should be involved at all in all of this. Personally I made a pumpkin with my children this year and I think Halloween can be a good time for children to explore the concept of the dark side of life. Within the boundaries of games and costumes they can experience their fear of the dark and their images of evil, all in the safety of make believe and items bought from the supermarket. But evil can be more sinister and just as some people are injured by fireworks so too there are those who are affected by involvement in sinister rituals. It is important that Halloween remains a game and that children's pranks are kept within the realms of play. As Christians there are lessons which we must bring out of Halloween

As Christians we need not fear any enemies. Even if we walk through the valley of the shadow of death God is still with us. There are no powers of darkness which can overcome us God has triumphed over evil
Impress on children that Halloween is the eve of the holy day of All Saints and All Souls.
 

All Saints Day, November 1
The word Hallow means 'Holy', and so All-Hallows refers to the Saints—the Holy Ones. Those who died for their faith or who lived extraordinary lives. This day dates back to the 5th century Antioch in Syria when the church dedicated a day to the memory of all those who had been killed for their faith. Until then the church had remembered martyrs on special days of the year, but there became more martyrs than days in the year, and there were some whose names were not known.

A saint is not given blanket approval, we know that they may have faults. A proverb tells us that 'a man cannot be a hero to his own valet,' the message being that familiarity breeds contempt, and it is probably true that the definition of a saint is somebody who lived a long time ago and who has not been researched well enough. They also led mucky lives and yet we applaud their courage as examples of their commitment and faith. The saints are honoured because of their heroism, their courage, it has nothing to do with station in life.

A saint could be described as somebody who has co-operated with the grace of God, known the transforming power of the Holy Spirit. They will all be dead. They will have made some sacrifice for the people or the community in which they lived, they all tried to follow Jesus. Saints are often remembered for particular deeds of kindness and symbols are used which are related to their special deeds,

St. Martin of Tours is represented by a cloak which he cut in half to give to a shivering beggar
Catherine of Alexandria is shown with a spiked wheel &
St. Sebastian usually holds an arrow—as a reminder of the terrible methods of their respective martyrdoms.
The saints are our ancestors on earth and precede us in heaven. Many Christians experience a strong sense that the saints are still with us, and that they watch over us and pray to God for us. Although dead they are members of Christ's Church and we use this day to give thanks for the lives of all the saints as they are examples to us. Saints are created as signs of hope, that the gospel really can change lives. Somebody is not made a saint at canonisation, it is rather an acknowledgement that somebody was a saint and is therefore in heaven and not neglectful of the needs of the world, through the communion of saints.

There are many saints who are known only to their neighbours and God alone. Perhaps you too could be a saint—But in the NT saint is often used to describe all those who are followers of Christ, the people called to holiness in him. Not just those who were extra-specially good. So does this apply to Christians now? Are all saints? The answer must be Yes! All Saints Day is an occasion to celebrate those who never picked up the title 'saint', but were nevertheless known as holy to God. In other words, All Saints Day is a celebration of ordinary Christians everywhere, at every time, who have tried to live the Gospel life.

You might find it hard to accept that people who are just ordinary can be saints. The saints are people who are supposed to be good at things ordinary people like us are not good at. They have qualities we don't have. They have patience, kindness, gentleness and self-control. We envy them their qualities; that's why we call them saints in the first place. Saints are other people, people we read about, but not very many of the people we actually know. The trouble is, seen in that way, saints can be people who put us down, they're so different, so special that we'd never recognise one if we saw one. They put us down, because we find ourselves so contrasted to them. They are much better, much holier than I can ever be—that's what a saint is. But might it not be that I have qualities or virtues that other people envy and aspire to? Might it not be that I'm putting myself down wrongly?

Surely, none of us can be so far from sainthood that we totally lack all saintly virtues? I might lack patience, but perhaps I have modesty. I might lack courage, but perhaps I have charity. In fact, those who are trying hardest to practise their Christian faith may be those who are least aware of their own best qualities and virtues. So let's not put ourselves down by comparing ourselves unfavourably with the saints. Let's recognise that we have saintly qualities too, perhaps not always as well-developed or focussed as in those recognised as saints, but they're there.

We all find ourselves in situations from time to time which can evoke a saintly, holy response in us. Most of us have at some time known poverty, worked for justice, been bereaved, suffered for conscience sake, and so on. You and I can be saints, when we respond to the challenge of a particular situation, using a conscience formed by prayer and faith in Jesus Christ. Let's not be so obsessed with our failings that we forget our moments of saintliness.

Today is a good day to remember that we are all saints. We are all called to be special ones, chosen by God and set apart for his service. We are all called to make sacrifices for our Lord as he gave the ultimate sacrifice for us. We are all called to share in the benefits of being his chosen ones to inherit the kingdom of God.

All Souls Day, November 2
On this day we pray not just for the Saints but for all of our loved ones. In 1048 Odilo, the Abbot of the Benedictine Monastery at Cluny near Paris instructed his monks to use this day as a day of remembrance and prayer for all the departed, this day was made official in the 14C. In the Christian Church we remember the Church not just as those who are living but also those who have died, they are just as much the church as we are and the Christian Church has two names for this, those who are living are called the church militant, and those have died are called the church triumphant. This time of year is an important time to cherish the memory of those who have died and who have gone before us. As we celebrate their memory we can know and be glad that they share with us in Christ's eternal kingdom.

Death has lost its sting for us! People find the whole idea of death difficult and to have a special day to remember those who have died is not an easy thing for some people. An old and respected elder of the Church was once asked, "What will happen to you when you die?" He answered, "I shall immediately depart into an eternal life of joy and bliss—but come now, let us not talk of such unpleasant subjects!" Wonderful doctrine, great news, the heart of the gospel—but no one wants to talk about it. Woody Allen said, "You know Death can really spoil a weekend." But not just death but also talk of death. So we hide behind humour sometimes. They say that when Oscar Wilde was on his deathbed he raised himself up on one arm, pointed to the wall, and said, "Either that wallpaper goes or I do." And so he did. Sometimes we just avoid the subject altogether. You can turn to the obituary section of the daily paper and find that we "pass away," "pass on," "go to our reward," "or are reunited with loved ones," We do so "peacefully," "suddenly" or "after a long illness." But it takes a powerful magnifying glass ever to find the words, "he died on Friday."

In our society we are protected from death. It is possible for a person to go through their whole life and not to be in contact with a dead body. A fear of death is natural but a tendency to turn our back on the dead and the bereaved is not a Christian thing to do. For Christians Death is not such a distressing subject and we must not allow our minds and our thinking to become distorted by the ideas of those around us who have no faith. At this time in the year of the church we can really think and speak about those who have died and not in hushed tones. We can remember and feel our loss and that is the purpose of the service which we will hold tonight. We celebrate the lives of those whom we have known and love and we pray for their peace, and of course it is a time to recognise that these people had impact upon our lives and are a continuing presence in our memories, in our affections, and in their abiding influence upon us.

One of the most common misunderstandings of Christianity is that it is primarily concerned with giving people a recipe for how to be good, or in the words of Dorothy Sayers "How to be kind to granny and the cat." But this misses it all. As Ernest Bloch, the German philosopher says: "It was not the morality of the sermon on the mount which enabled Christianity to conquer Roman Paganism but the belief that Jesus had been raised from the dead." What God has in mind for us is something of a new order, as different as a seed is from its bloom, as different, he says, as the earth is from the stars. I tell you a mystery, said the Apostle Paul, 'we shall not all sleep but we shall all be changed.'

Let's be clear here about one thing. When we say the word 'resurrection' we are not talking about the mere revival of the life you and I already know. God forbid that 70 or 80 years of aching bones, failing health and moral failings should stretch into an eternity! We are talking about a new and wonderful kind of existence where you will be you, your character, body, mind and emotion all made perfect. The you will be the real you at last. A story is sometimes told to children of water larvae little beetle like creatures that live beneath the water and they one by ones loose their friends as they go towards the surface of the water and they don't see them anymore. Then they agree that the next one to go will come back and tell the others what is going on. The next one leaves and as he passes through the surface of the water he becomes a dragonfly. He flies around and he knows how wonderful it is, but as he tries to go back through the water and tell his friends he cannot, he finds that he is unable to return. But he doesn't worry because he knows that one day they too will leave their watery existence to live a new life.

I like the way C. S. Lewis finishes his Narnia Chronicles, books written for children but best read by adults. The closing paragraph of the last chapter in the last book called The Last Battle put its this way: The things that began to happen after that were so great and beautiful that I cannot write them. And for us this is the end of all the stories, and we can most truly say that they all lived happily ever after. But for them it was only the beginning of the real story. All their life in this world and all their adventures in Narnia had only been the cover and the title page: now at last they were beginning chapter One of the Great Story which no one on earth has read: which goes on forever: in which every chapter is better than the one before.

Or as Paul tells it:

O Death where is thy sting? O Grave where is thy Victory?
Thanks be to God who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ!

 

Commentary

All Saints’ and preparing for the season of Advent belong together, as the celebration of All Saints’ reminds us of the judgement of God. The Saints who stand before the throne of glory have also stood before the throne of judgement. Whilst we sometimes think of Saints in terms of spiritual giants who lived many years ago, the biblical understanding of a Saint is someone whom God has sanctified and made holy.

For the Old Testament people of God, this meant belonging to God’s Chosen People, the Jews, to be a son of Abraham as Jesus puts it in the Gospel reading.

For New Testament believers and beyond, it means belonging to the Body of Christ, a people made holy through Jesus’ sacrifice

Being a Saint has implications as to the way we live our lives.

‘But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people belonging to God, that you may declare the praises of Him who called you out of darkness into His wonderful light - 1 Peter 2 v 9.

As Christians we are caught up in "so great a cloud of witnesses," whilst also watching, waiting, for the coming again of Christ, when all things shall be gathered up into the Kingdom of God.

All Saints' Day is also known as All Hallows' Day, hallow means to make holy, to consecrate or to honour, and it’s from the name All Hallows' that we derive Hallowe'en (the Eve of All Hallows). Throughout the year the church commemorates specific saints, but on 1st November we commemorate and celebrate all saints and thus God's mercy and love for us too. This celebration of saints started around the the 8th century when Pope Boniface IV designated 1st November as All Saints' Day to specifically honour those saints that didn't have a special day of their own. By the 9th century it had become a major feast in the church calendar in England and continues today.

Although All Saints Day is actually 1st November, the church celebrates All Saints’ Sunday today. In England "All Saints" is the second most popular dedication of English churches with over 1250 churches dedicated to All Saints. All Souls' Day, also known as the Commemoration of the Faithful Departed, comes the day after All Saints’ Day. This day provides an opportunity to commemorate "those we have loved but see no longer” and recognises the pain of human grief and fragility in a way that an All Saints' Day celebration cannot. It is for this reason that we always have a special service of commemoration of the faithful departed at this time of year. Our service will take place at 3.00pm on 12 November at St Mark’s Church. Sam Cappleman