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notre dame montreal Epiphany prayers, bible study and worship resources

Weekly Bible Notes and Worship Resources

The Epiphany Year A, Colour = White / Gold

Opening Verse  

The Magi travel to see Jesus

 

Epiphany


Stars cross the sky, wise men journey from pagan lands, earth receives its saviour in a cave. Let there be no one without a gift to offer, no one without gratitude as we celebrate the salvation of the world, the birthday of the human race. Now it is no longer, "dust you are and to dust you shall return", but, "you are joined to heaven and into heaven you shall be taken up".

Basil the Great (AD 330 - 379)

Collect Prayer
First Reading:
Second Reading:
Gospel Reading
Post Communion Prayer
Commentary:
Meditation:
Hymns for this week
Prayers for Sunday and the week ahead :
Intercessions from our Sunday worship
Sermon archive

picture of the magiIntroduction

Whoever the Magi were, and we may never know for certain, we should not over emphasise details of which we are not sure and have little basis in scripture. Equally importantly neither should we under-estimate the truth of what is contained in scripture and, in particular, the Christian message of Christmas; the message that when Christ was born, God himself came down and dwelt among us. And it was to that Christ that the Magi travelled, guided by the star. However they travelled, however long it took, it must have been quite a surprise when they found the Messiah in surroundings that they would not normally associate with a Messiah King. But in the story of the Magi and in their response to the infant Jesus we begin to see the changes that were occurring on earth through God’s cosmic intervention.

Opening Verse of Scripture Psalm 72

All kings shall fall down before him; all nations shall do him service. For he shall deliver the poor that cry out, the needy and those who have no helper. He shall have pity on the weak and poor; he shall preserve the lives of the needy. He shall redeem their lives from oppression and violence, and dear shall their blood be in his sight.
 

Collect Prayer for the Day

Creator of the heavens, who led the Magi by a star to worship the Christ-child: guide and sustain us, that we may find our journey's end in Jesus Christ our Lord.  Common Worship Shorter Collect

O God, who by the leading of a star manifested your only Son to the peoples of the earth: mercifully grant that we who know you now by faith, may at last behold your glory face to face; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who is alive and reigns with you, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen. Common Worship

Almighty God, your Son our saviour Jesus Christ is the light of the world. May your people shine with the radiance of his glory, that he may be known, worshipped and obeyed to the ends of the earth; who is alive and reigns with you, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever. Amen. Methodist Worship

Eternal Lord, our beginning and our end: bring us with the whole creation to your glory, hidden through past ages and made known in Jesus Christ our Lord. Common Worship Additional Collect
 

First Bible Reading  Isaiah Chapter 60:1-6

Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of the LORD rises upon you. See, darkness covers the earth and thick darkness is over the peoples, but the LORD rises upon you and his glory appears over you. Nations will come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your dawn. "Lift up your eyes and look about you: All assemble and come to you; your sons come from afar, and your daughters are carried on the arm. Then you will look and be radiant, your heart will throb and swell with joy; the wealth on the seas will be brought to you, to you the riches of the nations will come. Herds of camels will cover your land, young camels of Midian and Ephah. And all from Sheba will come, bearing gold and incense and proclaiming the praise of the LORD.

Second Reading  Ephesians Chapter 3:1-12

For this reason I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for the sake of you Gentiles-- Surely you have heard about the administration of God's grace that was given to me for you, that is, the mystery made known to me by revelation, as I have already written briefly. In reading this, then, you will be able to understand my insight into the mystery of Christ, which was not made known to men in other generations as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to God's holy apostles and prophets. This mystery is that through the gospel the Gentiles are heirs together with Israel, members together of one body, and sharers together in the promise in Christ Jesus. I became a servant of this gospel by the gift of God's grace given me through the working of his power. Although I am less than the least of all God's people, this grace was given me: to preach to the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ, and to make plain to everyone the administration of this mystery, which for ages past was kept hidden in God, who created all things. His intent was that now, through the church, the manifold wisdom of God should be made known to the rulers and authorities in the heavenly realms, according to his eternal purpose which he accomplished in Christ Jesus our Lord. In him and through faith in him we may approach God with freedom and confidence.

Adoration of the Magi. Panel from a Roman sarcophagus,Gospel Reading  Matthew Chapter 2:1-12

After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, "Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star in the east and have come to worship him." When King Herod heard this he was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him. When he had called together all the people's chief priests and teachers of the law, he asked them where the Christ was to be born. "In Bethlehem in Judea," they replied, "for this is what the prophet has written: "'But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for out of you will come a ruler who will be the shepherd of my people Israel.'" Then Herod called the Magi secretly and found out from them the exact time the star had appeared. He sent them to Bethlehem and said, "Go and make a careful search for the child. As soon as you find him, report to me, so that I too may go and worship him." After they had heard the king, they went on their way, and the star they had seen in the east went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was. When they saw the star, they were overjoyed. On coming to the house, they saw the child with his mother Mary, and they bowed down and worshiped him. Then they opened their treasures and presented him with gifts of gold and of incense and of myrrh. And having been warned in a dream not to go back to Herod, they returned to their country by another route.

Panel shows: The Adoration of the Magi from a Roman sarcophagus, 4th century. From the cemetery of St. Agnes in Rome

 

Post Communion Prayer

Lord God, the bright splendour whom the nations seek: may we who with the wise men have been drawn by your light discern the glory of your presence in your Son, the Word made flesh, Jesus Christ our Lord.

Commentary

The Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams caused quite a stir when he said that we should be careful and not read into scripture what is not there, whether it be about the number and nature of the wise men or the weather conditions in Bethlehem at the time of Jesus’ birth. The story of the wise men, he went on to say, seemed to work well as a legend, certainly with the accretion of the stories and traditions which have built up around it. Indeed, the Greek historian Herodotus (500 BC) says that the Magi were a caste of priests from Persia who could interpret dreams – and interestingly there are five dreams in Matthew's birth narrative, with four of them warning of the murderous intentions of King Herod and his son Archelaeus who succeeded him.

Whoever the Magi were, and we may never know for certain, we should follow the Archbishop’s guidance and not over emphasise details of which we are not sure and have little basis in scripture. Equally importantly neither should we under-estimate the truth of what is contained in scripture and, in particular, the Christian message of Christmas; the message that when Christ was born, God himself came down and dwelt among us. And it was to that Christ that the Magi, or wise men if you prefer, travelled, guided by the star. However they travelled, however long it took, it must have been quite a surprise when they found the Messiah in surroundings that they would not normally associate with a Messiah King. But in the story of these Magi and in their response to the infant Jesus we begin to see the changes that were occurring on earth through God’s cosmic intervention. Whilst we know relatively little about the wise men it is unlikely that they were Jews. The coming of the wise men to Jesus was symbolic of the fact that this Messiah Christ was for all people, not just the Jews. This Christ would be Lord of all who acknowledge Him and respond to His love and grace. The wise men visibly demonstrate that all who are looking for Christ can find Him and recognise Him, whatever the surprising surroundings they find Him in. And once they had found and recognised the Christ, their immediate response was to kneel before Him in silence and worship Him.

Sometimes when we enter the presence of God we feel that we need to say something, to start praying or singing a hymn. The wise men remind us that sometimes all we are called to do is to come before God and be silent. Sometimes it will be the silence of awe and majesty, as it probably was with the wise men. Other times it may be more like the companiable silence that breaks out between two friends who have no need of constant conversation to sustain their friendship. In all the noise and activity of the Christmas and New Year celebrations, all the hubris of a new birth, there was a silence as the wise men knelt and worshiped Emmanuel, God with us on our earth, the Messiah, Peace on earth, the redeemer of the world. It was only after the wise men had worshiped that they brought out their highly precious and valuable gifts to offer to the infant child. Gifts that were at the same time so rare and yet so inadequate. Gifts that would foretell the destiny that the baby Jesus would have in the years ahead. The destiny of a Prophet, the destiny of a Priest and ultimately the destiny of the Suffering Servant, crucified as King of the Jews nailed to His cross. Their response to an encounter with the living God was to willingly offer gifts of great value to Christ from generous hearts. After they had seen Him, recognised Him, worshipped Him and offered Him their gifts they then journeyed on, taking the experience of that meeting with them for the rest of their lives. As we journey through our lives we too take the experience of our daily encounter with God with us. Like the wise men we need to see Him, recognise Him, worship Him and offer our gifts to Him, that the world may be changed by the God who is with us and continues to intervene in His cosmic manner. A God who continues to be Lord and Saviour for all who kneel, worship and acknowledge Him.  Sam Cappleman


Meditation

MagiMany threads and stories from the Old Testament feed into the New Testament account of the wise men visiting Jesus. In the book of Numbers describes an encounter between the Israelites, who by this time after their escape from Egypt had travelled to the plains of Moab and are now camped along the Jordan just across from Jericho where they will enter the Promised Land, and Balak, the king of Moab. Balak asks Balaam to come and put a curse on the Israelites so that he can defeat them in battle. Balaam and his talking donkey reluctantly get involved, but rather than curse the Israelites, Balaam blesses them three times, much to Balek’s annoyance. In their final exchange Balaam prophesies that a star will come out of Jacob, a sceptre will rise out of Israel, and a ruler will come out of Jacob. Jesus, as the Israelites before Him, would travel to Egypt before coming to live in the promised land. Herod’s threat to kill the Hebrew infants has parallels with Pharaoh’s attempts to do the same before him, which led to Moses being put in a basket in the river. History is repeating itself. Only this time it is Jesus Himself who is the true representative of Israel, He is the true child of God, the Messiah Himself, the Star of Israel. As the prophets would foretell, the best of the world’s wise would come to Zion to acknowledge Him and creation itself would proclaim Him by the code which could be read in the sky. God had broken into our world. Curious then that Herod could not find this King of the Jews. Thirty years later others would not fail to find Him, as they nailed this very title to the cross on which He would be crucified. In the birth of Jesus God was acting powerfully to save the world from sin and Christ’s birth was the first step that would lead Him to the cross. The star, the sceptre and the ruler that Balaam had foretold had come and a new chapter in the world’s history had begun to unfold.  Sam Cappleman

 

 

Hymns

  1. Brightest and the best
  2. Longing for light
  3. The wise may bring their learning
  4. Thou who wast rich
  5. Mine eyes have seen
  6. Thou didst leave thy throne.
  7. See him lying on a bed of straw
  8. We three kings of orient are
  9. All earth was dark
  10. As with gladness men of old
  11. Brightest and best of the sons of the morning
  12. We three kings
  13. The first Nowell
  14. The race that once
  15. Wise men seeking Jesus

Prayers for Sunday and the week ahead

 

representation of prayer as seed growing

Prayer is a plant, the seed of which is sown in the heart of every Christian.
If it is well cultivated and nourished it will produce fruit, but if it is neglected, it will wither and die."

Father, when the Magi came to visit Jesus, your love was revealed for all people. May we too by our lives lived out by the guiding of your Holy Spirit, reveal your love for everyone.
We pray for your Church, that she may reveal more fully your abiding love for all creation and every race and creed which inhabits your earth. By unity within and love expressed in all her actions, may your church draw all people closer to Jesus.
We pray for the peace and well-being of the world, that all leaders of East and West may be led to follow in that way which leads to true peace and justice.
We pray for the sick and those who care for them, that Christ's light may shine upon them.
We pray for those departed this life, that they may come to see the light of God's glory.

With the angels and saints, each day and each night, each shade and each light, I bend my knee in the eye of the Father who created me, in the eye of the Son who redeemed me, in the eye of the Spirit who cleansed me. In love and affection, in wisdom and grace, in love and in fear, for ever and ever. Amen Gaelic Prayer to the Trinity

Almighty and everlasting God, you have revealed the incarnation of your Son by a bright shining star, which led the wise men to offer costly gifts in adoration. Let the star of your justice give light to our hearts, that we might give as our treasure all that we possess and all that we are, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen Gelasian Sacramentary

In their search for the Creator of the Universe, the wise men found you not in Herod’s palace, but among the dwellings of the poor and needy. Teach us to search for truth and beauty in unexpected places, to relieve poverty where we are able, and to share unashamedly in the cause of the outcast and despised. Amen

Most high, glorious God, enlighten the darkness of my heart and give me, Lord, a right faith, a certain hope, a perfect charity. Give me, Lord, wisdom and discernment, so that I may carry out your true and holy will. Amen.  St. Francis of Assisi:
 

Additional Material

Meditation

Christmas is nearly over, the celebrations, the awe and wonder and for most of us the break in the routine of work life. Holidays must end, the baubles and fairy lights have to go back in the box, we have to get back to reality. So is is with our lectionary as we move on to Epiphany, the revelation of who Jesus is.

Epiphany means 'manifestation' and this time in the church year celebrates the manifestation by God of himself to the world in Jesus. Jesus is the epiphany of God's love!

The reading from Isaiah prophesies that God will show forth his glory in a concrete way, and in the reading from Matthew the Christ child is seen by the Magi. These star gazers see a star and come to offer to Jesus royal gifts and worship - because they see the divinity present in him. With this revelation there comes the reality check, that not everybody is happy with our Jesus. There are those like Herod who recognise in Jesus a threat to their own power and authority.

But there is a challenge for us also. Whilst Epiphany is about God revealing himself to the world in Jesus, we also are challenged to be a part of God's manifestation. This is part of what being a Christian is all about, revealing the love of God to the world by living out the example of Jesus in our own lives. 

Commentary

Matthew 2:1 ‘After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, "Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star in the east and have come to worship him.’ 


So starts the Gospel of Matthew. It finishes in a similar way, specifically in Chapter 27 where the phrase ‘King of the Jews' is used, but nowhere more prominently than over the dying body of Jesus, fixed to the cross were the words 
THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS (Note John records 'Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews' John 19)

Matthew does not just throw his Gospel together, he uses the materials carefully and in so constructing his Gospel he makes the clear point, the death of Jesus was all part of God’s plan. The birth of Jesus was God’s idea and his death also was not just because of human hate. God gave Jesus to the world. Read the opening chapter of Matthew and this becomes clear Matthew 1:21 
‘She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins." All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: "The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel" --which means, "God with us."’ 

We are being led to recognise that in the birth of Jesus God was acting powerfully to save the world from sin.

So what of these Magi, whom only Matthew mentions? The story has led to fascinating stories and hymns such as ‘We three kings of Orient are’, however nowhere does Matthew mention 'Kings' and neither does he say how many there were. There is no indication of where they came from, their racial characteristics, their names or their mode of transport. Some have said they came on ships, others say camels. Some say that there were three, because there were three gifts recorded. Western Tradition has named them as Melkon, Balthasar and Caspar. These names were first used by Origen (d. 254) and became popular from the 6th Century. We are even led to believe that Jesus was a child and no longer a baby (verse 9)

Matthew’s gospel uses the story of the Magi (or magicians) for drama: the star moves across the sky and takes up station above the place where Jesus was born. The created world is being called to bear witness to this momentous event. The heavens declare the glory of God – in yet another way Matthew is making a statement about Jesus’ ministry and the church: the gospel is to be taught to all nations. As in the subtle additions to his genealogy, which break the pattern by naming women who have been under a cloud, with poor reputations, many of them with Gentile connections, so here Matthew wants us to see the deeper significance of the story. This is a celebration of inclusiveness: the Magi prove Jesus is for all people. Matthew shows in the story of the Magi that seekers from all nations will come to recognize Christ and be welcome in his presence. And, that the promise of Israel's being a light for the nations, as the prophets anticipated, is now fulfilled in Christ.

Matthew shows how the Magi behave and encourages us to do the same, they saw the demands of God's gift and so they left and followed. The story of the Magi today is not an encouragement to study the stars or to think God speaks to us in dreams. Rather it is a story of God meeting people where they are and speaking to them powerfully. The Magi were driven to visit Jesus, they did not know all the answers but they were moved to travel to discover more, to find out about Jesus. The Magi remind us that God's grace works through many different means.   Charles Royden

I do love the sound of the Authorised King James, version of the Bible being read out aloud in church. Especially perhaps at Christmas, those old familiar words have a special resonance. Sadly it does not serve us well in the episode from Matthew Chapter 2 which we read today in our lectionary for Epiphany. It recalls,

'Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the King, behold there came wise men from the East to Jerusalem.'

The Feast of the Epiphany, on the 6th January, remembers and celebrates the adoration of Jesus by the Magi from the East. However the original greek text  just calls them 'Magi'. The story of these 'Magi' is shrouded in much legend and the description used in the Authorised King James does not help us, as the words 'wise men' are without justification. Since there were three gifts we have often thought that there were three Magi . Often we think of them as three wise men, surely their actions do show them to be wise, but there is nothing to suggest that there were only three or that they were only men. We might just as easily assume that since they brought rich gifts, they were also kings and have them wearing crowns, and we could also imagine that they travelled by ship, (I saw three ships.!) Legend has gone so far as to name them Melchior, Caspar and Balthasar.

What we do know is that pagan astrologers existed whose divinatory skills were widely respected in the Graeco-Roman world. Astrology had become popular as the 'science' of the East, and everybody agreed that the best astrologers lived in the East. The Old Testament was not kind to this interpretation of signs (Deut 18:11, Is 2:6), so it is perhaps surprising in some ways that Matthew includes the story. However the fact remains that many people are firm adherents to the notion that we can consult with astrologers to best determine our path in life. Throughout the ages we can remember famous people and world leaders such as Queen Elizabeth or the Reagan's who would not take important decisions without first being advised by astrologers.    

The story of the Magi has provided material not only for countless school plays but also for centuries of prolific Christian art and paintings. The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is said to have been saved from destruction by invading Persians because they saw representations of the Magi on the walls and recognised them as fellow countrymen in the portrayal of them.

What we do know is that these Magi recognise Jesus for who he is, and give him their gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Their learning leads them to the destination of their searching into the presence of the infant Christ.

Christians have understood these gifts to be profoundly symbolic and prophetic.

  1. Gold represents the kingship of Jesus.

  2. Frankincense is a fragrant resin which is burned as incense to symbolize the presence of God, it therefore acknowledges the divinity of Jesus.

  3. Myrrh is a precious oil used for anointing the body, which serves to foretell the death of Jesus.

Perhaps that gift of gold would be used to help pay for the subsequent flight of Jesus and the holy family to Egypt.

The Greek word ‘epiphany’ is about 'manifestation', 'making known', and it has been used for the last two thousand years to describe God coming closer to the people, revealing himself in his Son, Jesus. At Christmas the light is born, at Epiphany that light is made known to all people. Such universalism is enshrined in the story of the Magi, Jesus is for all people not just one religious group. No longer will salvation be seen in terms of the hereditary principle 'we are children of Abraham.'

Epiphany Eve is twelfth night and we are encouraged to make sure that we have removed the Christmas decorations. As Jesus, the light, has been born into the world, so that light is surrounded by darkness. In a sense this is a time for getting back to reality. If they haven’t already, then now the tinsel and the glitter must give way to real life. ;

The gifts remind us of the wonder of who Jesus is, but they also proclaim that his life is one of suffering and death. Soon the holy family must flee an attempt on the life of the child and innocent babies will be slaughtered by Herod, jealous of the one born to be King of the Jews.

At Epiphany the light of the world is made manifest in Christ, visible to good and bad alike, to the wise men and to Herod. Each of these reacts differently one with joy and one with confrontation. Each of us must measure our own reaction and the gifts which we bring.

Jewishness had been the principle upon which salvation rested until Jesus. The children of Abraham were marked by circumcision to show that they belonged the the chosen few. This symbol of exclusiveness set them apart as belonging to God's family. This circumcision was soon to be replaced with a new symbol, baptism would proclaim to the world that a person had died to sin and was alive in the new kingdom which Jesus proclaimed and established. This would no longer be restricted to a certain people by birth, it would be available freely to all people.

The visit of these Magi at Epiphany is the beginning of this new understanding of the wideness of God's revelation of himself. The Magi were gentiles and they would be the first to represent the new inclusion of the many nations of the world. Just as the Magi were guided by a star that was brighter than all of the others, from this time on all the nations would see in Jesus a revealing of God's love which was greater in magnitude than had ever been seen before. The Magi might have been very wise, they might even have been men, we will never know. However in the very mystery of their background lies some of their most enduring attraction, for they have come to symbolise not only the opening of the entire geographic world to the revelation of Jesus, but also the entire intellectual world as their astronomy, science and learning brings them close to Christ. Charles Royden

 

Meditation

So what of the story for us ? Embarking upon a journey of discovery, like the Magi, is what we are all about as Christians. We are a pilgrim people, we have set off to follow Christ and learn more about God as we journey. For many this idea is an unsettling and uncomfortable idea, a journey in which we do not know the landmarks; where we will have to keep trusting the voice inside that urges us not to turn back or stop.
It is far more preferable for some to have a voice of certainty with all the answers, a voice which has a hotline to God and can speak all the truth all of the time. Sadly such voices are usually conmen (or women) and should not be listened to, no matter how comforting they appear to be.

There will be questions for all of us and we will change direction and move in different ways, this is all a part of the pilgrimage and shows that we are capable of growth towards maturity. It is a frightening thing to place one foot in front of another and trust that we will find the way, yet we walk that path with the hand of God.

What the Magi saw was hardly impressive; a poor family in a nondescript village and an infant. However, the Magi had been led by the light of the star. Was it really a huge star in the heavens like the Christmas show, or a small brightness of Jupiter or even as some Christians believe, an interior light that kept them looking and then shone brightly for them revealing the truth at the end of their quest? We will never know, but God was present among the obscure; hidden in an out-of-the- way place. 

Today we like the Magi, ask God to stir up a hunger in us. For the courage to let go of the comfortable and familiar and request the energy to once again go looking for God. To be open to finding the holy in unfamiliar and "unholy" places. May we also have a sense of wonder and awe, the spirit of a searcher, one willing to look up and follow a star beyond familiar borders. May we recognize the revelation of God, despite all appearances to the contrary.  The Revd Charles Royden

Meditation

On July 20, 1969, the human race accomplished perhaps its single greatest technological achievement of all time. The goal was to land men on the Moon and return them to earth safely. The Lunar Module ‘Eagle’ landed in the Sea of Tranquillity, with less than 30 seconds of fuel remaining. After dinner on the Moon, six hours later Neil A. Armstrong stepped onto the surface of the Moon, and proclaimed, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." He was shortly joined by Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin, and the two astronauts spent 21 hours on the lunar surface and returned 46 pounds of lunar rocks.


When the three Apollo 11 astronauts returned to Earth after their moon landing, many nations wanted to welcome them. They visited Pope Paul VI and in the papal library at St Peter’s Cathedral in the Vatican, he presented them with porcelain statues of the wise men who had followed the star to find Jesus in Bethlehem. Buzz Aldrin later said that this had been a very moving event, as Pope Paul had compared them with the Three Wise Men who visited Jesus at his birth, saying that the three astronauts, too, had reached their destination by following the stars that they could see. For the astronauts, it was only by focusing on certain stars that the computer’s navigation system and the gyroscopes could lead them to their destiny.
Aldrin later said "When Pope Paul VI presented us with Lladró's "The Three Kings", he spoke of a mission that had taken place two thousand years before. It was a mission undertaken by three men who were guided by the stars so that they might deliver a message to all humanity. Such a beautiful comparison with our mission moved us all very deeply indeed." Vision and purpose characterised both missions.

 

Meditation - The are five herods

The five Herods who persecuted Jesus and the church

  1. Herod the Great (c. 73–4 BC), as he was known, had been given the title “King of the Jews” in 40 BC, and after consolidating his power he ruled over Judea for 33 years (Luke 1:5).  He was ruthless: murdering his wife, three sons, mother-in-law, brother-in-law, uncle, and many others.
  2. His older son Archelaus born of his wife Malthace (Matthew 2:22), who reigned only a few years and was deposed in 6 AD. Herod’s reign was noted for splendour and construction. He built many theaters, amphitheaters, monuments, pagan altars, and fortresses. His greatest work was the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem, which commenced in 20 b.c. and was completed in 64 a.d. (It was destroyed by the Romans 6 years later in 70 a.d.)
    Herod was a tyrant who could not tolerate any contenders for his throne. His personality appears to be very choleric. He was a power hungry, self-absorbed, ruthless, controlling oppressor.
  3. Herod's younger son by Malthace, Herod the tetrarch (Luke 3:19), who is famous for murdering John the Baptist on a dinner party dare because John denounced his affair with his brother's wife (Mark 6:14–29), and for his encounter with Jesus at his trial (Luke 23:7).
  4. Fourth, there's Herod King Agrippa (Acts 12:1), the grandson of Herod the Great, who murdered James and tried to murder Peter (Acts 12:1ff).
  5. Finally, there's King Agrippa's son, also named Agrippa, who bantered with Paul amidst great pomp and exclaimed that Paul was trying to convert him (Acts 25:13–26:32).

So what of the story for us ? Embarking upon a journey of discovery, like the Magi, is what we are all about as Christians. We are a pilgrim people, we have set off to follow Christ and learn more about God as we journey. For many this idea is an unsettling and uncomfortable idea, a journey in which we do not know the landmarks; where we will have to keep trusting the voice inside that urges us not to turn back or stop. It is far more preferable for some to have a voice of certainty with all the answers, a voice which has a hotline to God and can speak all the truth all of the time. Sadly such voices are usually conmen (or women) and should not be listened to, no matter how comforting they appear to be.

There will be questions for all of us and we will change direction and move in different ways, this is all a part of the pilgrimage and shows that we are capable of growth towards maturity. It is a frightening thing to place one foot in front of another and trust that we will find the way, yet we walk that path with the hand of God.

What the Magi saw was hardly impressive; a poor family in a nondescript village and an infant. However, the Magi had been led by the light of the star. Was it really a huge star in the heavens like the Christmas show, or a small brightness of Jupiter or even as some Christians believe, an interior light that kept them looking and then shone brightly for them revealing the truth at the end of their quest? We will never know, but God was present among the obscure; hidden in an out-of-the- way place. 

Today we like the Magi, ask God to stir up a hunger in us. For the courage to let go of the comfortable and familiar and request the energy to once again go looking for God. To be open to finding the holy in unfamiliar and "unholy" places. May we also have a sense of wonder and awe, the spirit of a searcher, one willing to look up and follow a star beyond familiar borders. May we recognize the revelation of God, despite all appearances to the contrary.  The Revd Charles Royden

Meditation

Many threads and stories from the Old Testament feed into the New Testament account of the wise men visiting Jesus. In the book of Numbers describes an encounter between the Israelites, who by this time after their escape from Egypt had travelled to the plains of Moab and are now camped along the Jordan just across from Jericho where they will enter the Promised Land, and Balak, the king of Moab. Balak asks Balaam to come and put a curse on the Israelites so that he can defeat them in battle. Balaam and his talking donkey reluctantly get involved, but rather than curse the Israelites, Balaam blesses them three times, much to Balek’s annoyance. In their final exchange Balaam prophesies that a star will come out of Jacob, a sceptre will rise out of Israel, and a ruler will come out of Jacob. Jesus, as the Israelites before Him, would travel to Egypt before coming to live in the promised land. Herod’s threat to kill the Hebrew infants has parallels with Pharaoh’s attempts to do the same before him, which led to Moses being put in a basket in the river. History is repeating itself. Only this time it is Jesus Himself who is the true representative of Israel, He is the true child of God, the Messiah Himself, the Star of Israel. As the prophets would foretell, the best of the world’s wise would come to Zion to acknowledge Him and creation itself would proclaim Him by the code which could be read in the sky. God had broken into our world. Curious then that Herod could not find this King of the Jews. Thirty years later others would not fail to find Him, as they nailed this very title to the cross on which He would be crucified. In the birth of Jesus God was acting powerfully to save the world from sin and Christ’s birth was the first step that would lead Him to the cross. The star, the sceptre and the ruler that Balaam had foretold had come and a new chapter in the world’s history had begun to unfold.  Sam Cappleman

Commentary

Matthew 2:1 ‘After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, "Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star in the east and have come to worship him.’ 

So starts the Gospel of Matthew. It finishes in a similar way, specifically in Chapter 27 where the phrase ‘King of the Jews' is used, but nowhere more prominently than over the dying body of Jesus, fixed to the cross were the words 
THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS (Note John records 'Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews' John 19)

Matthew does not just throw his Gospel together, he uses the materials carefully and in so constructing his Gospel he makes the clear point, the death of Jesus was all part of God’s plan. The birth of Jesus was God’s idea and his death also was not just because of human hate. God gave Jesus to the world. Read the opening chapter of Matthew and this becomes clear Matthew 1:21 
‘She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins." All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: "The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel" --which means, "God with us."’ 

We are being led to recognise that in the birth of Jesus God was acting powerfully to save the world from sin.
 

So what of these Magi, whom only Matthew mentions? The story has led to fascinating stories and hymns such as ‘We three kings of Orient are’, however nowhere does Matthew mention 'Kings' and neither does he say how many there were. There is no indication of where they came from, their racial characteristics, their names or their mode of transport. Some have said they came on ships, others say camels. Some say that there were three, because there were three gifts recorded. Western Tradition has named them as Melkon, Balthasar and Caspar. These names were first used by Origen (d. 254) and became popular from the 6th Century. We are even led to believe that Jesus was a child and no longer a baby (verse 9)

Matthew’s gospel uses the story of the Magi (or magicians) for drama: the star moves across the sky and takes up station above the place where Jesus was born. The created world is being called to bear witness to this momentous event. The heavens declare the glory of God – in yet another way Matthew is making a statement about Jesus’ ministry and the church: the gospel is to be taught to all nations. As in the subtle additions to his genealogy, which break the pattern by naming women who have been under a cloud, with poor reputations, many of them with Gentile connections, so here Matthew wants us to see the deeper significance of the story. This is a celebration of inclusiveness: the Magi prove Jesus is for all people. Matthew shows in the story of the Magi that seekers from all nations will come to recognize Christ and be welcome in his presence. And, that the promise of Israel's being a light for the nations, as the prophets anticipated, is now fulfilled in Christ.

Matthew shows how the Magi behave and encourages us to do the same, they saw the demands of God's gift and so they left and followed. The story of the Magi today is not an encouragement to study the stars or to think God speaks to us in dreams. Rather it is a story of God meeting people where they are and speaking to them powerfully. The Magi were driven to visit Jesus, they did not know all the answers but they were moved to travel to discover more, to find out about Jesus. The Magi remind us that God's grace works through many different means.   Charles Royden

Commentary

The story of the wise men has been widely reported in the media this year following the remarks of the Archbishop of Canterbury when he said that we should be careful and not read into scripture what is not there, whether it be about the number and nature of the wise men or the weather conditions in Bethlehem at the time of Jesus’ birth. The story of the wise men, he went on to say, seemed to work well as a legend, certainly with the accretion of the stories and traditions which have built up around it. Indeed, the Greek historian Herodotus (500 BC) says that the Magi were a caste of priests from Persia who could interpret dreams – and interestingly there are five dreams in Matthew's birth narrative, with four of them warning of the murderous intentions of King Herod and his son Archelaeus who succeeded him.

Whoever the Magi were, and we may never know for certain, we should follow the Archbishop’s guidance and not over emphasise details of which we are not sure and have little basis in scripture. Equally importantly neither should we under-estimate the truth of what is contained in scripture and, in particular, the Christian message of Christmas; the message that when Christ was born, God himself came down and dwelt among us. And it was to that Christ that the wise men travelled, guided by the star. However they travelled, however long it took, it must have been quite a surprise when they found the Messiah in surroundings that they would not normally associate with a Messiah King. But in the story of the kings and in their response to the infant Jesus we begin to see the changes that were occurring on earth through God’s cosmic intervention. Whilst we know relatively little about the wise men it is unlikely that they were Jews. The coming of the wise men to Jesus was symbolic of the fact that this Messiah Christ was for all people, not just the Jews. This Christ would be Lord of all who acknowledge Him and respond to His love and grace. The wise men visibly demonstrate that all who are looking for Christ can find Him and recognise Him, whatever the surprising surroundings they find Him in. And once they had found and recognised the Christ, their immediate response was to kneel before Him in silence and worship Him.

Sometimes when we enter the presence of God we feel that we need to say something, to start praying or singing a hymn. The wise men remind us that sometimes all we are called to do is to come before God and be silent. Sometimes it will be the silence of awe and majesty, as it probably was with the wise men. Other times it may be more like the companiable silence that breaks out between two friends who have no need of constant conversation to sustain their friendship. In all the noise and activity of the Christmas and New Year celebrations, all the hubris of a new birth, there was a silence as the wise men knelt and worshiped Emmanuel, God with us on our earth, the Messiah, Peace on earth, the redeemer of the world. It was only after the wise men had worshiped that they brought out their highly precious and valuable gifts to offer to the infant child. Gifts that were at the same time so rare and yet so inadequate. Gifts that would foretell the destiny that the baby Jesus would have in the years ahead. The destiny of a Prophet, the destiny of a Priest and ultimately the destiny of the Suffering Servant, crucified as King of the Jews nailed to His cross. Their response to an encounter with the living God was to willingly offer gifts of great value to Christ from generous hearts. After they had seen Him, recognised Him, worshipped Him and offered Him their gifts they then journeyed on, taking the experience of that meeting with them for the rest of their lives. As we journey through our lives we too take the experience of our daily encounter with God with us. Like the wise men we need to see Him, recognise Him, worship Him and offer our gifts to Him, that the world may be changed by the God who is with us and continues to intervene in His cosmic manner. A God who continues to be Lord and Saviour for all who kneel, worship and acknowledge Him.  Sam Cappleman

Poem 'The journey of the Magi' by Eliot

"A cold coming we had of it,
Just the worst time of the year
For a journey, and such a long journey:
The was deep and the weather sharp,
The very dead of winter."
And the camels galled, sore-footed, refractory,
Lying down in the melting snow.
There were times we regretted
The summer palaces on slopes, the terraces,
And the silken girls bringing sherbet.
Then the camel men cursing and grumbling
And running away, and wanting their liquor and women,
And the night-fires gong out, and the lack of shelters,
And the cities hostile and the towns unfriendly
And the villages dirty, and charging high prices.:
A hard time we had of it.
At the end we preferred to travel all night,
Sleeping in snatches,
With the voices singing in our ears, saying
That this was all folly.

Then at dawn we came down to a temperate valley,
Wet, below the snow line, smelling of vegetation;
With a running stream and a water-mill beating the darkness,
And three trees on the low sky,
And an old white horse galloped away in the meadow.
Then we came to a tavern with vine-leaves over the lintel,
Six hands at an open door dicing for pieces of silver,
And feet kicking the empty wine-skins.
But there was no information, and so we continued
And arrived at evening, not a moment too soon
Finding the place; it was (you may say) satisfactory.

All this was a long time ago, I remember,
And I would do it again, but set down
This set down
This: were we lead all that way for
Birth or Death? There was a Birth, certainly,
We had evidence and no doubt. I have seen birth and death,
But had thought they were different; this Birth was
Hard and bitter agony for us, like Death, our death.
We returned to our places, these Kingdoms,
But no longer at ease here, in the old dispensation,
With an alien people clutching their gods.
I should be glad of another death.

 

Prayers

Glory to you, O Champion of all Loves, who for our sake endured the cross, encountered the enemy and tasted death. Glory be to you, O King of all Kings, who for our salvation wrestled with principalities and powers, subdued the forces of hell and won the greatest of all victories. To you be all praise, all glory and all love; now and for ever. Amen. Thomas Ken, 1637-1711

Almighty Father, whose Son was revealed in majesty before he suffered death upon the cross: give us grace to perceive his glory, that we may be strengthened to suffer with him and be changed into his likeness, from glory to glory; who is alive and reigns with you, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever. Amen.

When, good Lord, will you manifest yourself to us in bright sunshine? Yes, we are slow to understand and slow to see. But we are quick to believe that if you chose to reveal yourself to us, you could do so this very day. Dear lord, please appear to us, at dawn or at dusk or at the height of the day. Come to our table at mealtimes, that we may share our meals with you. Come to our bed, that we may share our rest with you. Come to our prayers, that we may rejoice and be glad. Gilbert of Hoyland (d. c. 1170)

O Source and Centre of all being, grant us the gifts of your grace, that walking in your way and strengthened by your life, we may journey through this world in your peace, and rest in heaven with your saints; and this we ask through Christ our Lord. Amen Gerhard Tersteegen, 1697-1769

What is this jewel that so precious? I can see it has been quarried not by men, but by God. It is you, dear Jesus. You have been dug from the rocks of heaven itself to be offered to me as a gift beyond price. You shine in the darkness. Every colour of the rainbow can be seen within you. The whole earth is bathed in your light. Infant Jesus, by being born as man you have taken upon yourself the pain of death. But such a jewel can never be destroyed. You are immortal. And by defying your own death, you shall deliver me from death.

Grant merciful Father, that we may be strengthened in your service. That we might show forth the wonder of your love for us in giving to us yourself in the form of Jesus, the child of Bethlehem. May our lives so reflect your glorious life of sacrifice, that others may come with us to worship. We offer to you our gifts of loving hearts, obedient service and joyful lives, that your glory might be known among all people. Amen.

Holy Jesus, before your infant form sages bowed the knee and acknowledged your Lordship over all power and wisdom. Grant us also clear vision and courage, that in the light of your light, we may devote our power and potential to your service even when that requires us to go home by another way. Amen. Church of Scotland

Almighty and everlasting God, you have revealed the incarnation of your son by the bright shining of a star, which the wise men saw, and offered costly gifts in adoration; let the star of your justice always shine in our hearts; that we may give as our treasure all that we are and all that we possess, to your service; through Jesus Christ our lord. Amen. Gelasian Sacramentary

 

Hymn

1 The wise may bring their learning,
The rich may bring their gold;
And some may bring their greatness,
And glories new and old;
We too would bring our treasures
To offer to the King.
We have no wealth or wisdom,
What shall we children bring?

2 We'll bring Him hearts that love Him,
We'll bring Him thankful praise,
And young souls meekly striving
To walk in holy ways.
And these shall be the treasures
We offer to the King,
And these are gifts that even
The poorest child may bring.

3 We'll bring the little duties,
We have to do each day,
We'll try our best to please Him
At home, at school, at play.
And better are these treasures
To offer to our King,
Than richest gifts without them,
Yet these a child may bring.

Suggested Tune Tyrolese

The Book of Praise for Children (1881)
7 6 7 6 D Iambic

Epiphany Prayers

Dear Lord.
As we start in a new year, let us give thanks for all we hold dear: our health, our family and our friends.  We praise and thank you for the gifts in our lives, all gifts that come in all shapes and sizes. We stand amazed at the amount of your grace that is poured over us; step by step, year after year it remains the same and remains in immensity.

Let us release our grudges, our anger and our pains, for these are nothing but binding chains. Let us live each day in the most loving ways, the God-conscious way. Let us serve all who are in need, regardless of their race, colour or creed. Let us not forget the example Jesus showed to us with the way he lived. Help us all to work to show the love the way Jesus did for us.

Let us not forget how fortunate we are living in the warmth and comfort of our own homes. Let us not forget and let us be thankful to the engineers and others who ensure this by working through the night and through bad weather conditions for the benefit of us.

We pray for all the possible opportunities that may come in 2011. May we remember to praise and thank you for all the good and amazing things that happen this year. However we also pray for you to shower us with love, mercy and grace in the hard times that happen in 2011 too. You rejoice when your children come to you in joy and sadness, remind us to turn to you in all things.

May our year be filled with peace, prosperity and love. May God's blessings come upon us and bestow upon each of us a bright, healthy and peaceful new year.
Amen.